There are many types of honey in the world as well as different types of bees that produce these valuable honeys. Bees show different characteristics according to the flora and climatic properties of the region where they live in. Vegetation and climatic conditions are so effective in bee species and the external appearance of the bee, the type and amount of honey they produced differs according to the area.
In this article, we will examine the species and characteristics of bees growing in different geographies of the world.
Bees are fully in harmony with the climatic conditions and vegetation of the region they live in. Therefore, the bees of each region have different characteristics and different yields.
Bee Species and Their Characteristic Features
Yellow bees are also known as Italian Bees. The homeland of this bee species is the island of Sicily, which is in the south of Italy. As it can be understood from its name, this species is yellow in color and known for its calm character and rapid growth rate.
Italian Honeybee gives very good results in mild and humid winter and dry summer seasons. Due to being a hard-working and durable bee species, they are resistant to the harsh conditions of cold winter months.
They have a high ability to quickly build their hives and combs. During the collection period, they carry less propolis. They are more likely to confuse their hives because of their predatory nature.
Italian bee is a kind of bee that can be called calm and docile. Their breeding rate is high and their offspring is from spring to autumn.
The Black Bee species is also known as the Brown Bee. Their homeland is the western part of the Central European Alps and central parts of Russia. But they are also seen in different parts of the world.
The black bee species is large and between 5.7 mm and 6.4 mm. Their body is covered with long and sparse hairs. There are yellow spots on the rings under the abdomen.
Black bee's tongue is short and can not benefit from plant nectar as much out of as possible and thus, their honey production is lower. However, by hybridization of black bees with other bees species, a more efficient species can be obtained.
Black bee, which has poor honey production, has high resistance to winter conditions. It is a very provident bee species and the probability of starvation is very low. Black bees are very aggressive and they tend to attack collaboratively. Thats why black bees are not much preferred by beekepeers.
Black bee species keep most of the small amount of honey they collect in the places where their young lives. The ability of swarming is very low and their youngs’ growth is very difficult comparing to other bee species.
Carnolian Bee is also known as Carniola honey bee. The homeland of this species is Slovenia. It is approximately 6.4 mm to 6.8 mm long. Carniolan Honeybee, which is resistant to cold climate, has colored, short, dense and gray - black feathers. Only Queen Carniolan Bees have gray and brown rings. They have strong resistance against harsh weather conditions.
Carniolan honey bee is the most docile race among bee species. It has high adaptability to environmental conditions and ability to give breed. As being a clever bee species, Carniolan honey bee is not a predator and easily finds its own hive.
Carniolan bees want to have a large family and their swarming yield is high. The population of Carniolan bees, which grow rapidly until autumn, decreases by winter. In this way, they spend their winter months comfortably because of their low consumption.
The Carnoilan honey bee is very diligent and starts collecting nectar early. They love seed plants. They need very little propolis because their beehives and honeycombs are clean.
Harmonious, hardworking and productive Carniolan honey bee is used by beekeepers to hybridize with other bee species to produce stronger and more efficient bees. It is also more resistant to bee diseases than other bee species.
Caucasian Bee Species
The Caucasian bee species takes its name from the high valleys of its mainland Caucasus Mountains. There are two different species; the ones that grow on the mountain and the one grow on plain. The Caucasian bee living in the mountains is gray, while the Caucasian bee living in the plain is yellow. The physical appearance of the Caucasian bee is very similar to the Carniolan honey bee.
Like the Caniolan honey bee, the Caucasian bee is a docile race. It is productive and has high breeding rate. They raise strong and healthy youngs and love large families.
The Caucasian bee does not accept the queen bee easily. They are also predators and the possibility of confusing the beehive is high.
Cyprus Honey Bee
Cyprus honey bee is a very aggressive and attacking species. Because of these properties, they are very difficult to control. Furthermore, it is not a very preferred type of bee by beekeepers since the yield and hybridization results are not successful.
Syrian Honey Bee
Syrian Honey bee has the same characteristics as Cyprus Honey bee; the homeland of both is the Mediterranean Region.
Syrian Honey bee is also an aggressive and low-yielding species. It is also harmful for beekeeping in the country as it harms other bee species.
Anatolian Honey Bee
Anatolian honey bee is among the most intelligent, durable, hardworking and productive species among all bee species.
The Anatolian honey bee is named after the Anatolian geography. They are being fed by the 2,000-year-old forests and endemic vegetation of this region. The predator feature is not very high and they are shown among the top races in determining its direction.
The offspring yield and offspring activity of the Anatolian honey bee are very high. They produce a small amount of honey and are resistant to the most severe winter conditions. Propolis production is also high. The propolis obtained from the endemic vegetation of Anatolia is rich in flavonoid components.